a) An intravenous solution of sodium chloride 0.2% requires to be made isotonic by the addition of anhydrous glucose. What weight of anhydrous glucose is required in the preparation of 1L of the intravenous solution? (A 1% solution of sodium chloride depresses the freezing point of water by 0.576°C. A 1% solution of anhydrous glucose depresses the freezing point of water by 0.1037°C.) (4 marks)

b) A pharmacist has to make a batch of one hundred lg suppositories, each containing 75mg of drug X. Mould calibration is 1. Drug X has a displacement value of 2.1. Assuming the pharmacist makes a 20% excess to allow for losses in preparation and the base is theobroma oil, calculate the quantity of theobroma oil required. What is the final weight of each suppository? (3marks)

c) A pharmacist is requested to use three lots of ointment containing 30%, 20% and 5% ichthammol, respectively, to prepare 500g of a ointment containing 15% ichthammol. In what proportion should they be mixed to prepare 200g of a 15% ichthammol ointment? (3 marks)

d) You receive a prescription for a 6-year-old boy (weight: 34kg) for intravenous immunoglobulin (‘IVIG’) 2g/kg X 1 dose. 

Your institution carries Bivigam 10%. The manufacturer recommends this medication to be administered at an initial rate of 0.5mg/kg/minute for 10 minutes. If tolerated, the solution may be titrated up every 20 minutes in increments of 0.8mg/kg/minute up to a maximum of 6mg/kg/minute. Your institution carries Bivigam 5g/50mL as stock solution. 

  1. How many vials of stock solution would you need to fulfil the above medication order? 
  2. What is the initial rate of infusion for this patient’s prescription? 
  3. What is the minimum duration for infusion for the prescription assuming the patient is able to tolerate this medication?

(6 marks)

e) Calculate the osmolarity of 8.45% Sodium Bicarbonate solution (molecular weight of sodium bicarbonate = 84g/mol). (2 marks)

f) How many milliliters of 1:700 Benzalkonium Chloride are required to prepare 30mL of 0.01% w/v Benzalkonium Chloride ophthalmic solution? (2 marks)

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